The year of foundation - 1723
Population (2013) - about 1,015,000
Economic and geographical position of the city may be designated
as unique: it is located on the bank of the Kama in the nearest
neighbourhood of the Ural Mountains. Owing to its position
Perm is the eastern-most port of the United Deep-Water System
of the European part of Russia. Here is the intersection of
the Kama deep-water route, the Trans-Siberian railway and
federal arterial road Kazan-Perm-Ekaterinbourg.
Perm the beginnings of XX century
Perm was founded in 1723 as a small settlement
near Egoshikha copper-smelting plant which was reformed to
the town of Perm in 1780. In 1781 Perm became the centre of
the region ruled by governor-general, and in 1796 - the principal
town of province of the same name.
In 1788 the copper-smelting plant was closed because of depletion
of ore resources. Advantageous economic and geographical position
of the town was the decisive factor in its further development.
Perm grew, became more rich and developed as the leargest
commercial centre in commodity circulation between Europe
and Asia. Regular shipping traffic along the Kama was started
in 1840, and in 1858 regular passenger service between Perm
and Nishny Novgorod was established. On October 1, 1878 Perm-Nizhny
Tagil-Ekaterinbourg railway line was inaugurated. At the end
of the 19th century Perm-Kotlas railway was built, in 1905
railway communication with St. Petersbourg was established,
and in 1908 Perm became a station of the Trans-Siberian railway.
New plants were put into operation (Gullet's Ship-Repairing
Plant, 1858, now Machine-Building Plant named after Dzerzhinsky;
Perm Cannon-Making Plant, 1863, now the Joint Stock Company
"Motovilikhinskye Zavody" and others). Commercial
and transport enterprises of I. I. Luybimov, N. V. Meshkov,
F. K. Kamenskikh and G. K. Kamenskikh
became the enterprises of economic importance. Numerous educational
institutions (secondary schools, theological seminary, technical
high school) were opened in Perm. In 1916 the first state
university of the Urals was established here.
Up to 1923 Perm was the principal town
of the province. Then it became the centre of the okrug (until
1931) and the centre of the district incorporated in the Sverdlovsk
region (until 1938). Since 1938 Perm is the centre of the
During the Soviet period the highest rates of development
were exhibited by enterprises of machine-building. chemical
and petrochemical industries. In 1930s an aircraft engine-building
plant, ship-building plant, several chemical enterprises and
heat-electric generating station # 6 were erected. In 1940s
an aggregate-building plant, bicycle plant, telephone plant,
chemical plant ("Galogen"), margarine factories,
house-building works and tobacco factory were built; in 1950s
Kama Hydro, oil refinery, pulp-and-paper mill, cable plant,
long-distance communication equipment plant, heat-electric
generating station # 9 and other enterprises were launched;
in 1960s plants producing high-voltage insulators, synthetic
detergents, appliances, electric equipment, etc. were commissioned.
The network of educational and cultural institutions was considerably
Perm is one of the largest cities in the Ural region and in
Russia. Its contribution to the national and regional economy
is difficult to overestimate. In 1999 its share in the total
volume of regional production comprised 40,9%.
The leading inter-branch complexes of the city are machine-building,
chemical, fuel and energy, and timber industrial complexes.
Food industry is well represented in Perm. There are several
enterprises of light and construction materials producing
The machine-building complex includes
enterprises engaged in electrical engineering (the Open Joint
Stock Company "Kamkabel", the Open Joint Stock Company
"Eliz"), production of navigation and communication
equipment (the Open Joint Stock Company "Morion",
the Open Joint Stock Company "Perm Research and Production
Instrument-Making Company", the Open Joint Stock Company
"Telta"), production of aircraft engines and their
components (the Open Joint Stock Company "Perm Machine-Building
Association "Inkar", the Open Joint Stock Company
"Permskye Motory", the Open Joint Stock Company
"Perm Motor-Building Plant"), production of bicycles
and car assembly units (the Open Joint Stock Company "Velta"),
mining engineering (the Open Joint Stock Company "Mining
Engineering Plant), ship-building (the Open Joint Stock Company
"Shipbuilding Plant "Kama") and other industries.
Special place in the machine-building industry of the region
belong to the enterprises of military-industrial complex which
currently produce various civil-purpose products as well.
The State Enterprise "Mashinostroitel" produces
materiels of space rocket systems, oil- and gas field equipment,
gas-pumping units, microwave ovens and other articles.
The Open Joint Stock Company "Research and Production
Association "Iskra" being one of the leading Russian
enterprises in the field of production of solid propellant
power plants for rocket-space complexes and systems manufactures
also varied equipment for fuel and energy and agro-industrial
complexes, emergency systems. Machine-Building Plant named
after Dzerzhinsky produces motorized chain saws, medical electrosurgical
apparatus and other tools and devices.
The Open Joint Stock Company "Motovilikhinskye
Zavody" (the oldest producer of cannons in Russia) manufactures
also automotive-type cranes, excavators and other machines.
Chemical complex enterprises produce great number of various
The Open Joint Stock Company "Mineral Fertilizers"
(Perm) specializes in production of nitrogenous fertilizers.
The Open Joint Stock Company "Sorbent" is the leading
Russian enterprise producing active coals and absorbents based
on them. The Open Joint Stock Company "Galogen"
manufactures chladonium, fluoroplastic and fluoroplastware,
inorganic and other products. The Open Joint Stock Company
"Interkhimprom-Oxosintez" specializes in production
of styrene, ethyl benzene, butyl alcohols, 2-ethyl-hexanol.
Another enterpise of military-industrial complex - Plant named
after Kirov - produces a wide range of civil-purpose products:
aerosol extinguishing substances, polyurethane (foamed and
cast), constructional and finishing materials, paintworks
materials, industrial explosives, etc.
The most significant enterprises of the fuel and energy complex
are: the Limited Liability Company "LUKoil-Permnefteorgsintez"
(motor gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel and other petroleum
products), the Open Joint Stock Company "Perm Lubricant
Producing Plant" (cutting emulsions, cutting liquids,
working fluids, additives, autocosmetics), the Open Joint
Stock Company "Perm Gas Refinery" and the Open Joint
Stock Company "Kama Hydro" (electric power production).
Perm is the princial place of business
of such fuel and energy complex companies as the Close Joint
Stock Company "LUKoil-Perm" (the company performs
the whole production cycle: from deposit prospecting and exploitation
to production and sale of petroleum products), the Open Joint
Stock Company "LUKoil-Permneft" (oil and gas extraction),
the Open Joint Stock Company "Permenergo" (generation,
transmission and distribution of electric and heat energy;
some of electric power plants are located in the regional
The timber industrial complex of the city is based on the
use of rich timber reserves of Prikamye. One of four pulp-and-paper
enterprises of the region - the Joint Stock Company "Perm
Pulp-and-Paper Mill" - is situated in Perm. Among woodworking
enterprises of the city are the Limited Liability Company
"Orglit" (fiber boards, joinery and other timber
products) and the Open Joint Stock Company "Krasny Oktyabr"
The Joint Stock Company "Permmebel", the Joint Stock
Company "Dratsena" and the Limited Partnership "Druzhba"
are among those producing furniture.
Food industry is also well represented.
Perm is located at the intersection of the Kama deep-water
route, Moscow-Ekaterinbourg- Tyumen-Vladivistok railway and
Ekaterinbourg- Kazan federal road.
Gornozavodskaya branch line off the Trans-Siberian
railway - the oldest railway line in the Urals - goes to Ekaterinbourg
via Tchusovoi, Gornozavodsk (Pashia station) and Nizhny Tagil.
Bus and minibus service connects Perm with many settlements
of Perm agglomeration and the most towns and districts of
There are two river ports incorporated into the United Deep-Water
Navigation System of the European part of Russia: Perm and
Levshino. During navigation period tourist ships run from
Perm to Moscow, St.Petersbourg, Rostov-on-the-Don, Astrakhan.
Bolshoye Savino airport provides service for many air companies.
Direct air routes connect Perm with Moscow, Samara, Rostov-on-the-Don,
Mineralnye Vody, Krasnodar, Novy Urengoi, Baku, Kishenev,
The city transport is represented by tram (12 routes), trolley-bus
(11 routes), bus (over 70 routes), fixed-route taxi (over
30 routes) and taxi traffic. During navigation period a passenger
ferry-boat across the Kama is in service.
Electronic communication services are rendered by the Open
Joint Stock Company "Uralsvyazinform", postal communication
- by the enterprises of the Perm region Department of Federal
Currently market infrastructure is gathering
force in Perm. The primary banks are Perm bank of the Savings
Bank of Russia, the Open Joint Stock Company "Permstroibank",
the Open Joint Stock Commercial Bank "Prikamye",
the Open Joint Stock Commercial Bank "Perm", the
Limited Liability Company Commercial Bank "Dzerzhinsky",
the Open Joint Stock Bank "Permkredit", Perm Regional
Branch of the Joint Stock Commercial Bank "SBS-Agro"
(Moscow), Perm Branch of the Limited Liability Company "Komipermbank"
(Kudymkar), "Permsky" Branch of the Open Joint Stock
Commercial Bank "Transkapitalbank" (Moscow) and
The main insurance companies are the Open Joint Stock Company
"Rosgosstrakh-Perm", the Limited Liability Company
"Adonis", the Open Joint Stock Company "Ural-Ail",
the Limited Liability Company "Perm-Asko", the Close
Joint Stock Company "Privat-Energostrakh", etc.
The main auditing companies are: the Close Joint Stock Company
"Finansy", the Close Joint Stock Company "Audit
Privat Servis", the Limited Liability Company "Uralaudit",
the Limited Liability Company "Konsultant" and others.
In Perm there are several branches of the Ural Research Centre
of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation, tens
of scientific, research and design institutions, 8 establishments
of higher education and 24 establishments of secondary education.
In 1998-1999 school year 172 comprehensive secondary schools
had 136 608 pupils.
In 1998 the city public health system numbered 59 municipal
dispensaries and polyclinics and 31 hospitals. For every 1000
inhabitants of the city there were 166 beds, and for every
10 000 inhabitants - 45 doctors.
Perm is an important cultural centre of Russia. There are
seven professional theaters.
The city has powerful industrial potential,
and is an important cultural and scientific centre of the
country. Perm is the main "donor" of the regional
At the same time Perm has many knotty problems common to other
cities of this rank:
1. The city functional structure is overburdened with
production and other functions not typical for big cities
with population over a million people in well-developed countries.
The city develops extensively in isolation from the agglomeration.
As a consequence, a network of satellite towns is only slightly
developed, processes of redistribution of production, development
(building) and other functions among the centre and periphery
of the agglomeration are practically absent. Financial and
economic, educational, cultural, scientific, recreational
and a number of other functions are not adequately developed
2. The branch and intra-branch structures of industry are
not in balance.
3. The city is significally overburdened with external transport
4. Absence of dynamic balance between production sphere and
Development prospects of the city must be closely connected
with development of Perm agglomeration which centre the city
is. The agglomeration, in its turn, must develope intensively
which involves elaboration and implementation of mechanisms
of deconcen- tration of social and economic development in
an effort to restrain the extensive growth of Perm and restrict
establishment of productions that require additional territorial,
material and technical resources. Concurrently, the problem
of rapid social and economic development of small towns and
settlements of urban type must be decided; they are to become
agglomeration subcentres forming in correlation with the city's
release from the functions not typical for it.